Table 1

Chemokine and cytokine content of hpod_CM and hpod_HGCM

Cytokine/chemokineControlHigh glucoseMannitol
Basic FGF252 ± 13219 ± 18a205 ± 24b
CCL23,236 ± 5174,223 ± 1,034c3,299 ± 717
CCL31,016 ± 362678 ± 195547 ± 262c
CCL478 ± 2352 ± 12c40 ± 20a
CCL530 ± 931 ± 723 ± 4
CCL764 ± 1444 ± 9a33 ± 8b
CCL11145 ± 49109 ± 15149 ± 45
CCL2250 ± 2761 ± 1248 ± 6
C-X-C motif chemokine 1073 ± 3176 ± 2169 ± 26
CX3CL1111 ± 3797 ± 19109 ± 24
EGF3.9 ± 0.84.8 ± 1.34.2 ± 1.1
FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand9.0 ± 2.19.5 ± 1.07.3 ± 2.2
Granulocyte CSF1,116 ± 360762 ± 229c433 ± 248b
Granulocyte-macrophage CSF1,904 ± 4921,576 ± 1971,295 ± 477c
IFN-α241 ± 1845 ± 345 ± 10
IFN-γ4.9 ± 2.44.9 ± 1.85.2 ± 2.7
IL-1α161 ± 35126 ± 19108 ± 31a
IL-1β3.1 ± 0.73.9 ± 0.73.3 ± 0.9
IL-1 receptor antagonist41 ± 1246 ± 641 ± 6
IL-21.8 ± 0.71.7 ± 0.72.0 ± 0.7
IL-3<0.64<0.64<0.64
IL-44.1 ± 0.93.9 ± 1.44.8 ± 1.1
IL-50.5 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.1c
IL-612,463 ± 9,4868,915 ± 2,5226,994 ± 2,124
IL-73.5 ± 0.33.3 ± 0.73.5 ± 0.5
IL-8>10,000>10,000>10,000
IL-90.7 ± 0.20.6 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.4
IL-103.3 ± 1.22.7 ± 0.62.2 ± 0.4c
IL-12 subunit p4016 ± 612 ± 713 ± 6
IL-12 subunit p701.6 ± 0.51.6 ± 0.92.0 ± 0.7
IL-131.3 ± 0.51.2 ± 0.51.2 ± 0.6
IL-1510.0 ± 2.910.0 ± 1.78.5 ± 2.6
IL-17A4.6 ± 1.42.2 ± 0.4a1.2 ± 1.0b
Pan-GRO8,972 ± 1,6838,200 ± 2,20214,559 ± 10,435
PDGF-AA473 ± 158629 ± 233433 ± 147
PDGF-BB161 ± 25144 ± 16153 ± 37
Soluble CD40 ligand6.1 ± 2.36.9 ± 2.56.7 ± 1.6
TNF-α22 ± 724 ± 418 ± 7
TNF-β1.8 ± 1.01.5 ± 1.11.8 ± 0.6
TGF-α40 ± 1430 ± 630 ± 10
VEGF-A2,370 ± 7842,153 ± 4352,375 ± 1,233
  • Data are mean ± SD and expressed in pg/mL. Boldface type highlights CCL2 levels. CSF, colony-stimulating factor; EGF, epidermal growth factor; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; IFN, interferon; Pan-GRO, CXCL1/CXCL2/CXCL3; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; TGF, transforming growth factor; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.

  • aP < 0.01 vs. control; bP < 0.001 vs. control; cP < 0.05 vs. control by one-way ANOVA followed by Fisher least significant difference post hoc test.