Table 1

Characteristics of Gen3G and HAPO participants

AllNGTGDM
Gen3G cohort
 N55150843
 Age (years)*28.2 ± 4.328.1 ± 4.130.0 ± 5.8
 Primigravid*189 (34.3)178 (35.0)11 (25.6)
 European ethnicity535 (97.1)492 (96.9)43 (100)
 Family history of diabetes107 (19.4)95 (18.7)12 (29)
 Gestational age at OGTT (weeks)26.4 ± 1.026.4 ± 1.026.2 ± 1.0
 BMI at OGTT(kg/m2)*28.1 ± 5.427.9 ± 5.231.0 ± 7.0
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL)*75.6 ± 6.974.9 ± 5.784.5 ± 12.0
 1-h Glucose (mg/dL)*128.6 ± 28.8124.6 ± 25.4175.4 ± 25.9
 2-h Glucose (mg/dL)*104.7 ± 23.7101.4 ± 20.2143.6 ± 27.3
 Fasting insulin (μU/mL)*8.8 ± 8.08.5 ± 8.111.3 ± 6.8
 Fasting C-peptide (pg/mL)*970.3 ± 542.2951.0 ± 535.11,197.7 ± 579.0
 Insulin secretion (Stumvoll first-phase estimate)1,190.8 ± 433.61,197.8 ± 430.01,107.5 ± 471.4
 Matsuda insulin sensitivity index*7.7 ± 5.39.1 ± 5.35.2 ± 2.8
 HAPO insulin sensitivity index*2.2 ± 0.52.3 ± 0.41.9 ± 0.4
HAPO cohort
 N1,3801,173207
 Age (years)*31.3 ± 5.331.1 ± 5.332.6 ± 4.9
 Primigravid782 (56.8)679 (57.9)103 (50.5)
 European ethnicity1,380 (100)1,173 (100)207 (100)
 Family history of diabetes*229 (16.6)176 (15)53 (26)
 Gestational age at OGTT (weeks)28.5 ± 1.428.5 ± 1.428.4 ± 1.3
 BMI at OGTT (kg/m2)*28.5 ± 4.828.0 ± 4.531.0 ± 5.8
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL)*82.1 ± 6.780.5 ± 5.391.1 ± 6.8
 1-h Glucose (mg/dL)*132.0 ± 29.5125.9 ± 24.6166.4 ± 31.4
 2-h Glucose (mg/dL)*109.3 ± 21.7105.3 ± 18.4131.6 ± 25.5
 Fasting C-peptide (μg/L)*1.98 ± 0.811.85 ± 7.02.70 ± 1.0
 HAPO insulin sensitivity index*3.7 ± 1.53.9 ± 1.52.5 ± 0.9
  • Data are mean ± SD or n (%), unless stated otherwise. OGTT was performed between 24 and 32 weeks’ gestation. HAPO: N = 1,376 for subjects with information on gravidity, N = 1,364 for subjects with HAPO insulin sensitivity index results. NGT, normal glucose tolerance.

  • *Significantly different between NGT and GDM (P < 0.05).