Table 2

Associations of glycemic trait GRSs with their respective traits in pregnancy

GRSSNPs (N)TraitUnivariateMultivariate
β (95% CI)Pr2β (95% CI)P
Gen3G cohort
 Fasting glucose38Fasting glucose (mg/dL)0.42 (0.30, 0.55)1.6 × 10−107.0%0.39 (0.27, 0.51)3.0 × 10−10
 Fasting insulin18Fasting insulin (μU/mL)0.02 (0.002, 0.04)0.030.6%0.01 (−0.003, 0.03)0.12
 Fasting insulin18Fasting C-peptide z-score0.02 (−0.01, 0.05)0.240.07%0.008 (−0.02, 0.04)0.60
 Insulin secretion24Stumvoll first-phase estimate−0.01 (−0.02, −0.003)0.0071.3%−0.02 (−0.02, −0.009)3.8 × 10−7
 Insulin sensitivity14Matsuda index−0.02 (−0.04, −0.0007)0.040.6%−0.03 (−0.04, −0.006)0.009
 Insulin sensitivity14HAPO insulin sensitivity index z-score−0.02 (−0.06, 0.01)0.220.01%−0.03 (−0.06, 0.008)0.13
HAPO cohort
 Fasting glucose38Fasting glucose (mg/dL)0.43 (0.35, 0.52)2.7 × 10−237.0%0.42 (0.06, 0.18)5.2 × 10−25
 Fasting insulin18Fasting C-peptide z-score0.01 (−0.006, 0.04)0.160.1%0.02 (0.005, 0.038)0.01
 Insulin sensitivity14HAPO insulin sensitivity index z-score−0.01 (−0.04, 0.01)0.400.05%−0.02 (−0.04, 0.005)0.14
  • Multivariate models included age, BMI, and gestational age as covariates. The model with the Stumvoll first-phase estimate as the response variable also includes insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) as a covariate.