TABLE 1

Subject characteristics

Control (n = 18)T2DM-low (n = 29)T2DM-high (n = 30)ANOVA P value
Demography
    Age, years54.7 ± 1.357.1 ± 0.956.8 ± 1.00.304
    Time since diagnosis of diabetes, yearsNA4 (2–8)4 (3–5)0.426
Anthropometry and hemodynamics
    BMI, kg/m227.3 ± 0.626.7 ± 0.530.0 ± 0.5*,<0.001
    Body surface area, m−22.1 ± 0.12.0 ± 0.12.1 ± 0.10.085
    Waist circumference, cm102 ± 299 ± 2107 ± 20.005
    Systolic blood pressure, mmHg118 ± 3124 ± 2130 ± 2*0.002
    Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg72 ± 273 ± 178 ± 1*,0.004
    Heart rate, bpm56 ± 264 ± 266 ± 1*0.001
Metabolic characteristics
    HbA1c, %5.4 ± 0.17.0 ± 0.27.3 ± 0.2*<0.001
    Total cholesterol, mmol/l5.0 ± 0.24.3 ± 0.14.5 ± 0.20.006
    LDL cholesterol, mmol/l3.2 ± 0.12.6 ± 0.12.7 ± 0.7*0.007
    HDL cholesterol, mmol/l1.24 (1.10–1.63)1.05 (0.85–1.29)0.96 (0.82–1.09)*<0.001
    Triglycerides, mmol/l0.8 (0.6–1.2)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.8 (1.2–2.3)*,<0.001
    ALT, U/l25 (18–33)26 (21–33)37 (30–51)*,<0.001
    AST, U/l24 (20–30)28 (21–36)28 (24–38)*0.139
    γ-GT, U/l23 (17–29)23 (18–37)42 (35–48)*,<0.001
    usCRP, mg/l3.0 (1.7–6.3)2.9 (1.6–4.5)4.7 (3.5–6.8) 0.007
    Malondialdehyde, μmol/l6.0 ± 0.19.7 ± 0.510.0 ± 0.4*<0.001
Medications, % (n/N)
    StatinsNA38 (11/29)47 (14/30)0.497
    Any antihypertensive medicationNA41 (12/29)43 (13/30)0.879
  • Data are mean ± SE, median (interquartile range). NA indicates not applicable. T2DM-low indicates type 2 diabetic patients with liver triglyceride content ≤8.6%. T2DM-high indicates type 2 diabetic patients with liver triglyceride content >8.6%.

  • *indicates significant difference between controls and T2DM-high.

  • †indicates significant difference between controls and T2DM-low.

  • ‡indicates significant difference between T2DM groups. HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; γ-GT, γ-glutamyl transferase.