TABLE 7

Clinical and metabolic parameters in patients with early renal failure with and without evidence of cardiovascular disease

Patients without cardiovascular diseasePatients with cardiovascular disease
n9026
Age (years)54 ± 1264 ± 12*
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)171 ± 21185 ± 27*
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)101 ± 12101 ± 14
BMI (kg/m2)26.7 ± 3.826.5 ± 3.3
Current smokers (%)3457
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.37 ± 0.985.83 ± 0.91
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.39 ± 0.843.90 ± 0.86*
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.36 ± 0.371.18 ± 0.34
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.33 ± 0.931.61 ± 0.90
Creatinine clearance (ml · min−1 · 1.73 m−2)72.6 ± 13.760.2 ± 19.7*
Urinary protein excretion (mg/day)233 ± 198479 ± 216*
Microalbuminuria (mg/day)50 ± 90144 ± 223*
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.00 ± 1.444.88 ± 1.22
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)75.3 ± 35.976.1 ± 42.3
Fasting C-peptide (pmol/l)0.85 ± 0.521.02 ± 0.55
Fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio × 1006.64 ± 2.656.41 ± 4.48
AUC blood glucose (mmol · l−1 · min)24.9 ± 9.327.5 ± 9.4
AUC plasma insulin (pmol · l−1 · min)1,148 ± 732990 ± 524
Glucose MCR (ml · kg−1 · min)14.5 ± 3.013.8 ± 3.4
  • Data are means ± SD. Comparison by Student t test or Pearson χ2 test.

  • *

    * P < 0.01 vs. patients with creatinine clearance ≥90 ml · min−1 · 1.73 m−2;

  • P < 0.05 vs. patients with creatinine clearance ≥90 ml · min−1 · 1.73 m−2. AUC for blood glucose and serum insulin concentration 180 min after oral glucose load. MCR was assessed during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To convert to conventional units, multiply cholesterol by 38.6 (mg/dl), triglycerides by 88.5 (mg/dl), glucose by 0.05551 (mg/dl), insulin by 7.175 (μU/ml), and C-peptide by 3.021 (ng/ml).